I have just read a conference paper titled “Why is Europe so efficient at producing scientific papers, and does this explain the European paradox?”, by P. Foland & R.D. Shelton (2010 Leiden, STI Conference). The main conclusion is that the relative efficiency in producing papers in the SCI per $1 million in national R&D investment is higher in the European Union than in United States and China. However, this is not reflected in other outcomes, such as patents. Is there a problem in the European incentive system in academia?